Types Of Leadership Styles

Thus, we are going to describe one of the classifications that is most used and well-known within group psychology. The chart below illustrates the differences between these four styles of leadership. I spent my childhood in libraries, in nature, and in the classroom. While leadership theories are focused on understanding what makes leaders successful, the leadership styles focus specifically on the traits and behaviors of leaders under a specific theory. Leadership Styles Objective: To examine the different styles of leadership; To encourage teamwork; To strengthen public speaking skills. The various styles of leadership are as follows: Autocratic Style, Consultative Style, Participative Style, Laissez-Faire Style; Bureaucratic Leader, Neurocratic Leader, Paternalistic Style, Sociocratic Style, and; Situational Style. 4) Democratic Management Style. Based on the book Primal Leadership by Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKee, there are 6 different leadership styles you should know about. Different Types of Leadership Styles. , examined the relationship between CEOs and managers by comparing transformational versus transactional leadership styles. Nowadays, unfortunately we don’t have a single classification of the different types of leadership. Types of Leaders I have found it helpful to categorize leaders into the following four types:. A fire-and-forget style does not. Most hypotheses and studies on leadership have engaged in the leader's personal background, character traits, perceptions, typical behaviors and actions. The leadership and management styles include:. Understanding the 3 Main Types of Leadership Styles in Education Leadership styles were introduced to address the needs of students from diverse backgrounds. Since that time, diverse theories have evolved to explain the various types of leadership styles. According to Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard a leader will have to adapt his style to level of maturity of the employee. But there are many approaches available to us, and a good leader. But in those eight to 14 weeks, men and women develop discipline and responsibility -- qualities required in the military's transactional, transformational and servant leadership styles. To be an excellent leader has been an elusive quest. The three types of cookies we use are strictly necessary, analytics and performance, and advertising. Leadership styles affect on the employee performance and productivity. Depending how those fit together, a leader might adopt one of a variety styles, each reflected in the way the organization operates and the way its staff members relate to one another. This was my first exposure to the “3 coaching styles” Three coaching styles In the 3 coaching styles there are types: The “Command style (or dictator)”, the “Submissive style (or baby sitter)” and the “Cooperative style (or teacher). Ultimately the goal of any leader is to get results. purpose is that to study different types of style (leadership style) to follow the most appropriate style to influence subordinates/followers in a better way. Influence from previous mentors will also influence a person's ability and style to guide and direct a group of individuals. Men: • Men often prefer “male-oriented” settings (math, science and law enforcement). This article presents our quanti-tative synthesis of these studies. The Pontificating Manager is the type of manager who can talk to anyone and immediately make people feel comfortable. Formal leadership styles are typically seen in the management of most businesses and clubs, as they usually run off of a type of hierarchy in the group. The most appropriate leadership style depends on the function of the leader, the followers and the situation. An effective Project Management Professional (PMP) is able to invoke various leadership styles. How do various leadership styles perform? How does somebody develop a style of leadership? There are a number of leadership types that have been observed and studied, as you certainly know. When it’s done right, leadership development transforms individuals, teams, organizations, and society. The study of ethics is about human relationships. Participative leaders are a mix of the other two styles and provide direction while also taking feedback from their team. Walking in the Fog. Each style is a way to meet one's needs in a dispute but may impact other people in different ways. The leadership style we will discuss here are: Autocratic style, Democratic Style, Laissez Faire Style. The following are examples of leadership styles. But the truth is, there are many different styles of leadership that can be effective, depending on how and where they’re used. Military history provides countless examples of battles that were won or lost because of leadership. Remember, these types of leadership styles in management exist to serve your organization, so don't feel as though you have to conform your approach to fit some pre-determined mold. Types of Effective Leadership Styles in Schools In researching various leadership theories, I've found that not only do many of the theories overlap, but the theorists' work does as well. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Some are earned, others come through circumstances. The Integrated Psychological theory of leadership is an attempt to integrate the strengths of the older theories (i. Free Online Library: Jungian personality types and leadership styles: an empirical examination. Transformational Leadership Transformational leadership is the ability of a leader to get people to do more than they originally expected to do in support of a large scale innovation and change. You need different styles for different situations and circumstances. Cognitive skills are the core skills the brain uses to think and learn, and explain why some students struggle to learn in various settings. Collaborative leadership styles distribute power, authority and responsibility across the group. 2 Definition 3. ————————————. Everything you ever wanted to know about Leadership Styles from leadership expert and author Mark Murphy and Leadership IQ. These are all reviewed below covering both ends of the task management spectrum. Each of these individuals discovered a different set of leadership styles. Judging from the situation, people can adopt more leadership styles. Types of Leadership Style. Leadership fosters shared commitments, helps resolve conflicts, facilitates lasting relationships and stimulates effective action. Such style of leadership is known as transformational. The type of communication that develops between the leader and the workforce is controlled by the leadership style. and Canada, including KSCPA. It views leadership as broadly distributed among coworkers rather than concentrated in the hands of one or a few superiors. They wouldn’t ask an employee to take on a. But there are many approaches available to us, and a good leader. Some leaders stick to one style that works best for them. Interestingly, each one of us is a leader and we have a leadership style that comes into function during hards times in life as well as at the workplace. To teach learners about the different leadership styles and personal qualities of leadership it may be useful to discuss as a group different leadership styles and qualities, using examples of well-known political or public service leaders to reinforce the teaching. There is more about these below. There are many types of authority. Your leadership style represents the different traits and ideas about leadership that you possess and how you use those to influence and inspire others. Leadership is the ability to create a unified vision among followers, set goals, develop strategies to. A leadership style is a leader's style of motivating people direction and implementing plans. Not just applicable to huge factions like countries, leadership can change the face of everything – from a sports team’s big win to the viability of large MNCs. 3 Comments → Leadership Styles – Be An Empowering Leader. It takes great leadership skills to build great teams. Types of Effective Leadership Styles in Schools In researching various leadership theories, I've found that not only do many of the theories overlap, but the theorists' work does as well. It is important to understand which style you use and to recognise that you may use different styles depending on the situation. 6 Styles of Business Leadership. When this style doesn't work so well: When top-down decisions need to be made, or a group needs to follow collective directions. Let’s Talk about Different Leadership Styles. Jul 09, 2015 · The Idealist leadership style accounts for about 15-20% of American leaders. Table 1 lists some of the dimensions of leadership styles and components as viewed by the scholars along with the type of the sectors and outcomes. The challenge lying in this is employees potentially will show reluctance in terms of achieving the organization objectives. This leadership style is known as one of the strongest supervisory styles. Norman Schwarzkopf Leadership style relates to a specific behavior and will be influenced by the leaders aims and personality as well as their relationship and interaction with the team. The first style of leadership style is Autocratic Style. It’s important to understand though, that the problems below are much more likely in low power distance cultures than in high ones. The role of a leader is, ultimately, to influence team members to accomplish a given task while fostering team cohesion and motivation. These programs are time consuming and require a significant investment from the business owner. He designated five leadership roles: cavalier, martyr, abdicator, controller and activator. Each of these individuals discovered a different set of leadership styles. The Situational Leadership ® Model. As the name suggests every team member can participate. A VETERAN OWNED SMALL BUSINESS | Call or text now for a FREE consultation: +1 (770) 765-3692 | Website Login. Leadership Styles : Leadership Style 995 Words | 4 Pages. Forces such as time availability, the type of the task, information availability and team members ability and skills should influence the style adopted. As discussed by John Kotter (1985, p. At the same time, the staff nurses rated their job satisfaction using the work quality index questionnaire by Whitley and Putzier (1994). METHODOLOGY A total of 46 wardens completed the surveys (100%), which were distributed at the warden's semi-annual meeting at the Academy for Staff Development. Lewis charted 24 different leadership styles in his book “When Cultures Collide. If you remember your high-school French, 4. For example, autocratic leaders are fantastic when disaster strikes and a problem needs solving urgently but they don. The Importance of Leadership style. I’m going to start by answering your question and then talk about why I think focusing on leadership style is unhelpful. A person can potentially exercise a number of different leadership styles in order to run an organization. We’ll also be discussing the 6 leadership styles at my next quarterly Growth Plan Workshop. Participatory Style Here, it is critical to give each employee an entire task to complete. This is to be expected, as no one leadership style or theory can work in isolation, and no leader can align with one style to utilize in all situations. Linus Pauling (Two times winner of the Nobel Prize). Different types of leadership styles exist in work environments. There are three basic styles of leadership decision-making: authoritarian, democratic, and. From the effective leadership styles only it is possible to achieve organizational goal productively. But practically speaking, how do you become one? A good start is to focus on leadership styles. Leadership styles affect on the employee performance and productivity. Below is a brief examination of some common. Situations also help define a person's leadership style. ATTERBURY November 2008. Beyond dominant leadership types and abilities, leaders also vary in their decision-making styles. These are all reviewed below covering both ends of the task management spectrum. Situations also help define a person’s leadership style. Please accept the use of cookies or review our cookie policy and manage your cookie settings. The individuals who are the leaders in an organization, regarded collectively. There are as many approaches to leadership as there are leaders, from Lewin's Leadership Styles framework of the 1930s to the more recent ideas about transformational leadership. We’ll also be discussing the 6 leadership styles at my next quarterly Growth Plan Workshop. Also, remember that writing a leadership essay encompasses many different aspects – like leadership styles, leadership development, types of leadership, successful leadership, leadership principles and values etc. Effective Listening. Everyone can become a great leader, have better self-confidence and achieve success. Editor's Note: Here's a nice overview of different kinds of leaders, and various models that describe different leadership styles, and some suggestions about how to examine and explore your style and improve. The good news is that your leadership style can build a winning team, or transform the one you have. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision-making. Ralph Stogdill at the University of Ohio studied two different styles of leadership after being hired by the United States military to do so. Autocratic leadership. Types of leadership styles. Laissez-faire is very different from Bureacratic because the Laissez-faire leader doesnt get involved with the team, they put in no input or effort. The key thing is to know what type of leadership is needed. Can charismatic leaders become a detriment to the organizations that. A useful handout to help develop leadership and management styles by increasing understanding of MBTI personality type preferences, especially as they relate to a person's use of dominant preferences over the other mental functions. democratic leadership; Transactional vs. Leadership Development - Leadership Styles and Training Leadership Development Ever since we started Impact Factory, lo these many years ago, we have struggled with the whole notion of leadership development or leadership training. There are many different leadership styles that can be employed by leaders. Leadership Styles in Management. The Four Basic Styles of Communication Passive Aggressive Passive-Aggressive Assertive 1. Of course, leaders can fall anywhere along either dimension of the model and so not every one is a “pure” or extreme type. Types of leadership styles. Influence from previous mentors will also influence a person's ability and style to guide and direct a group of individuals. Introduction Interpersonal skills are considered to be one of the tools that a project manager uses in the process 9. As leadership is "the process of influencing a 0rgonized group toward accomplishing its goals. It is the way in which the leader influences the followers (Luthans, 1977). Research shows that supply chain leadership encompasses more. A leader is a person who influences a group of people towards the achievement of a goal while leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal. If that’s not possible, make sure the individual knows and understands his or her part as it relates to the project or task. Judging from the situation, people can adopt more leadership styles. Because a laissez-faire leader does not spend their time intensely managing employees, they often have more time to dedicate to other projects. Researchers have found that this. Participative or Democratic. You have Maya Angelou types: courageous, creative, steadfast. There are many different types of leadership (or management) style. GENE HALL, WILLIAM L. Several years ago I came across four definitions of leadership styles while helping my congregation develop a small group ministry. This is why it is so important to understand the different types of leadership out there and how they compare to other leadership styles. to a moderate extent. Leadership styles are styles that you - leaders - use in different situations to get work done by your people. To help answer this question, it's important to understand the different types of leadership styles. Take our quiz to discover your natural leadership style, then find out more about our leadership development programmes to see how we could help you become an exceptional leader for a school in. 1 Introduction There is a rich history and body of research regarding Leadership. and Canada, including KSCPA. According to NursingTimes. Other Theories and Types of Leadership Adaptive leadership. Transactional. Of course, leaders can fall anywhere along either dimension of the model and so not every one is a “pure” or extreme type. From country to country, leadership styles vary greatly based on political reign, cultural values and historical events. According to Research by asaecenter, leadership style is the way a person uses power to lead other people. There are many different types of leadership (or management) style. Please accept the use of cookies or review our cookie policy and manage your cookie settings. These behaviors are usefully categorized according to conflict styles. Leadership styles are a learnable quality that anyone can attain through hard work and self-discipline. Instead, the best leader is someone who realizes what a job or task requires–and then does it!. An effective Project Management Professional (PMP) is able to invoke various leadership styles. Free-rein or Delegate. Transactional. In 1939, a group of researchers led by psychologist Kurt Lewin set out to identify different styles of leadership. What is the difference between leadership and management? Explain how leadership can be seen as a special case of social influence. However, the transactional and laissez-faire leadership styles were found to significantly and negatively relate to quality management practices. 6 Styles of Business Leadership. Leadership books What are good leadership styles and which qualities does a great leader need? Read our leadership books and gain new insights into what makes today's modern manager. In the late 1930s, Dr. Types of Leadership Styles 1. Leadership style is not about good/bad, right/wrong: leadership style depends on the task, people and situation to be managed. Situational leadership, however, is most effective when leaders choose more effective styles like charismatic, transactional, and transformational. For best results, answer as truthfully as possible. This reduces the need for restraint and increases the level of patient cooperation. Transformational Leadership. There are different types of leadership styles exist in a work environment. However, trying to define leadership in general terms is tenuous and difficult,. QUESTION 1 (500-550 words each) There are three types of leadership styles. Leadership Communication Styles: What steps can a leader take to better communicate more effectively with others, even if it means doing so within their LPA? 1. Strong and committed leadership is key to a successful company. Just as the unique gifts associated with each personality type contribute to society, they also contribute to the many different types of leadership needed to keep the world moving forward. There are also many general styles, including servant and transactional leadership. The authoritative leader is really good at setting the vision and painting an appealing picture of where we. Democratic—the Parent: Democratic leadership, also known as participative leadership, is a perfect blend of "autocratic" and "laissez-faire" leadership styles. Types of Leadership in School Administration Administrative Leadership. Keith 2012 3 Main Types of Leadership Styles The Autocratic or Authoritarian Leader The Democratic or Participative Leader The Laissez-faire or Delegative Leader 2 Other Styles The Charismatic Leader The Servant Leader The Autocratic or Authoritarian Leader Given the power to make decisions alone, having total authority. And the leadership styles needed to deliver organisational change are closely related to each type of project. Read each one carefully, then, using the following scale, decide the extent to which it actually applies to you. Salaam (Mrs) Ph. There have literally thousands of books written on this subject, and whilst it is always useful to learn from others, leadership is a factor of much more than theories. Just having different styles of leadership isn't enough. students with the leadership code provided in the Explanation of Leadership Styles section, which they will enter in the. By mid-afternoon Emma had already used three different leadership styles. While each of these styles has its good points, there is a wide berth of variation, and in fact, transformational leadership is truly an amalgamation of the best attributes of the other three. While his roles represent extremes of particular styles, they help us envision the range of leadership styles. Leadership Communication Styles - The Pros and Cons Alvin Plexico, PH. The aim is to move people towards a new set of shared dreams. • No one best style - leaders must adjust their leadership style to the situation as well as to the people being led • Many different aspects to being a great leader - a role requiring one to play many different leadership styles to be successful. Whilst there are many different leadership styles, everyone has a default leadership style that comes most naturally to them. 3) Coaching Management Style. Kurt Lewin and colleagues did leadership decision experiments in 1939 and identified three different styles of leadership, in particular around decision-making. Autocratic leadership style. Daniel Goleman Interview… These 6 styles are described by Daniel Goleman in the interview below. Autocratic leadership. The leadership style is effective and effortless. Here is Wise Toast's list of the 12 different types of leadership styles:. ————————————. Learn about the 6 habits of highly effective leaders with this online course form Udemy! The Autocrat. But the challenge is that great leaders have multiple leadership styles in their toolkit, and they are adept at diagnosing situations and using the right leadership styles at the right times, according to David Jones, professor of management at the University of Vermont Grossman School of Business. The Styles, Models & Philosophy of Leadership 9 Leadership Styles 3 Leadership Styles “leadership is a combination of strategy and character” General H. Authorities and experts have several common systems for classifying. The 2 Most Negative Leadership Styles. Start studying Types of Leadership Styles. Leadership styles also depend on context: a good leadership style for one group - or circumstance - could be all wrong for another. CONCLUSIONS: Nurse managers who provide support and communication through transformational and transactional leadership styles can have a positive impact on staff nurse work engagement and ultimately improve organizational outcomes. Just as a child develops his personality and style, so does he develop a learning style. There are three basic styles of leadership decision-making: authoritarian, democratic, and. Bureaucratic leadership. Democratic Leadership c. Active leadership: Active leaders tend to lead by example and set a high standard for themselves and their employees. very influential and established three major leadership styles. There are many different types of leadership (or management) style. There are varieties of factor which may affect people within the organization. Some are earned, others come through circumstances. Highly task-oriented leaders focus only on getting the job done, and they can be quite autocratic. There are numerous perspectives on the different types of “management styles. It defines the types of behaviors that guide an organization and then looks at how those behaviors occur. Each leadership style has its strengths, although some. The styles of leadership range from simple definitions to complex descriptions. He designated five leadership roles: cavalier, martyr, abdicator, controller and activator. The secondary objectives were as follows. This sounds severe, but the authoritative leader is the one who is able The Team Builder. Leaders should be aware of these various styles and seek to use the appropriate style in the proper situation. You can first read a situation, and then you can either adapt your leadership style for the situation, or you find a situation that better suits your style. Taking a team from ordinary to extraordinary. A large part of group success is not necessarily who is leading but rather how they lead. Leadership fosters shared commitments, helps resolve conflicts, facilitates lasting relationships and stimulates effective action. At this point, we will take a closer look at leadership styles. Recurring Toilet Ring - Top 3 Solutions tested. The Coercive Leadership This kind of leadership style demands absolute submission of the employees to the commander, ‘just do whatever the manager tells you to execute’. Others believe that in competitive leadership situations, people who practice servant leadership can find themselves left behind by leaders using other leadership styles. Apply now for Foundations of Christian Leadership. PASSIVE COMMUNICATION is a style in which individuals have developed a pattern of avoiding expressing their opinions or feelings, protecting their rights, and identifying and meeting their needs. Leadership styles can be defined as a person's way of governing, directing, and motivating followers. Leadership Styles. Leadership Styles for Aviation Managers. Leadership Evolution. In doing so, they are said to exhibit a "leadership style". Servant leadership. There are varieties of factor which may affect people within the organization. 1 Introduction There is a rich history and body of research regarding Leadership. Charismatic leadership. Pace-Setter Leadership. four different types of leaders which have been most widely accepted and used. To help answer this question, it's important to understand the different types of leadership styles. S1 leadership style must be applied to a D1 follower. From the effective leadership styles only it is possible to achieve organizational goal productively. The data were collected from nurse managers (n = 252) in health centre hospitals in Finland using a structured questionnaire (response rate 63%). You lash only when it is absolutely necessary, and only on the last sheep – one that makes the whole flock move. Understanding the four types of projects can help you to predict problems and put measures in place to avoid them. Servant Leadership. Your leadership style influences everything from how you approach problem-solving to how you manage employees. How do you behave, contribute and interrelate with others when leading your team? We all have natural tendencies in our workplace. HULING he need for more and better in-formation about the leadership role of principals in school im-. But one critical factor to your success is leadership style, both in how you manage people and how you like to be managed. Greens I seek knowledge and understanding Exploring Leadership Styles - True Colors. Research shows that supply chain leadership encompasses more. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision-making. There are many different leadership. Aside from what follows here, Scouller's expertise in leadership theory is evidenced particularly in his 2011 book "The Three Levels of Leadership", which I commend to you. Leadership Styles Game For Classrooms Or Training Sessions This classroom activity is a group game which students can play to learn about leadership styles and how they are used in different situations. INTJ Leadership INTJs, though not as known for leadership as ENTJs, are nonetheless one of the most likely Rational leadership types (Keirsey, 1998). According to NursingTimes. In the 1970's, Robert Greenleaf created this term to describe leaders who influence and motivate others by building relationships and developing. The most suitable style for you depends largely on the type of person you are and what kinds of goals you have. Not just applicable to huge factions like countries, leadership can change the face of everything – from a sports team’s big win to the viability of large MNCs. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. To become a great leader, check out this business speaker. A leadership style is a leader's style of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Different types of leadership styles exist in work environments. Charismatic leadership. A leader is a person who influences a group of people towards the achievement of a goal while leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal. There are the different types of leadership styles that exist in work environments and advantages and disadvantages. There are nine different leadership styles, and the type you use to direct your team can greatly impact the success of your organization. Types of Leadership Styles in Nursing Broadly speaking, there are two types of fundamental leadership styles, democratic and autocratic. Ask students to tally their scores. As discussed earlier, few leaders adopt the carrot approach and a few adopt the stick approach. Leadership is a big, vague, amorphous topic. While each of these styles has its good points, there is a wide berth of variation, and in fact, transformational leadership is truly an amalgamation of the best attributes of the other three. Leadership Styles Effective Change Leadership. The details will be adjusted to the specific development of emotional intelligence and leadership styles. Types of Leadership Style. This character strength becomes a crutch to their leadership style, often blinding them to the need to further systemize their approach. Former wildlife ecologist turned businessman, Rad Watkins, developed the personality assessment based on animal species he has worked with and their close relationships to people he has helped lead. Leadership at all organizational levels could be meaningfully thought to impact on these four types of emergent constructs, though the nature of emergence would likely differ by organizational level. PDF | Introduction: Nursing is a people-centred profession and therefore the issue of leadership is crucial for success. This article will provide an overview of the well-known leadership characteristics associated with men versus women leaders. Editor's Note: Here's a nice overview of different kinds of leaders, and various models that describe different leadership styles, and some suggestions about how to examine and explore your style and improve. As coaching is such a broad profession, it encompasses a huge variety of techniques and styles. Organizational Structure. INTJ Leadership INTJs, though not as known for leadership as ENTJs, are nonetheless one of the most likely Rational leadership types (Keirsey, 1998). Styles of Leadership. It is the result of the philosophy, personality and experience of the leader. TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STLYES. Leadership Style Weaknesses. Military leadership is not the authoritarian style depicted in Hollywood movies. Leadership can be defined as a trait to motivate and empower others by taking up responsibility of a task and turn a vision into reality (Northouse, 2015). Female Leadership Styles. A leadership style is a leader's style of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. In every activity there is leadership and opportunities to improve leadership skills. Autocratic leadership style. They seek to unleash the full potential of their followers, so they can reach higher and go farther than they previously thought possible. Four of these are based on the fundamental ‘task v people’ interaction. Join us for Foundations of Christian Leadership in Washington, D. Laissez-faire leadership, also known as delegative leadership, is a type of leadership style in which leaders are hands-off and allow group members to make the decisions. Behavioral theory promotes the value of leadership styles with an emphasis on concern for people and collaboration. Based on previous studies we can say that there are no sufficient studies on Principals’ leadership styles on Secondary school teachers’ job satisfactionin Sri Lanka. A VETERAN OWNED SMALL BUSINESS | Call or text now for a FREE consultation: +1 (770) 765-3692 | Website Login. Among them is awareness of your own leadership style – and how it affects other people. The secret to great leadership is a high level of emotional intelligence. Both of these leadership styles are described by Northouse in the text "Leadership: Theory and Practice", whereas the trait approach has its roots in leadership that suggest that certain people were born with traits that make them great leaders, the compliment to trait theory is the skills approach that shows that effective leadership. For certain highly-regulated industries such as manufacturing work, or jobs where safety is a chief concern, bureaucratic leadership is successful. There are 3 types of leadership styles could see mainly, as traditional leadership styles. Trait Theory of Leadership: In the 1940s, most early leadership studies concentrated on trying to determine the traits of a leader. Author Andrew Frankel, MSc, BA, PGCMS, RNM, DipN, is hospital director, Churchill Gisburn Clinic, Lancashire. Research has identified a variety of leadership styles based on the number of followers. As leadership is "the process of influencing a 0rgonized group toward accomplishing its goals. Which one. Although it is easy to correlate follower development with leadership style, they are not automatically tied together, e.